Aquatic Turtles
Trionyx cf. priscus Leidy
Bothremys barberi (Schmidt)
Description: There are different types of scutes found from these turtles. These scutes have different shapes depending on
where in the shell they came from. The carapace (top of the shell) is divided into the neurals (scutes along the spine), the costals
(scutes fused to the ribs). The plastron is the bottom of the shell.

The neural scutes usually have a blocked chevron outline, a ridge in the middle and rarely fused verte-brae. The costal scutes
have a rectangular outline and are flat with a slight curve. The rib is fused to the underside of the costal scute. The neural and the
costal scutes have surface ornamentation composed of small irregular divots close to the neurals becoming ridges towards the
ends. The peripherals are wedge shaped and when complete usually have a deep divot in the thick part of the wedge for the
articulation of the ribs. Most of the time the costal scutes are broken in half after fossilization. The plastron scutes are thin and are
usually flat.

Of the two types of aquatic turtles that occur, the easiest to identify are those of the soft-shelled
Trionyx cf. priscus. Trionyx
material possesses highly ornamental markings on their scutes making them identifiable even with isolated and scrappy remains.
Their costal scutes are readily identified by the very shallow, irregular divots which have no distinct pattern (similar to a golf ball).

The other type of aquatic turtle is much more difficult to identify due to differences that are usually only noticeable with more
complete scutes. The side-necked (Pleurodia) turtle, cf.
Bothremys barberi is also known as the "Paving stone turtle" owing to
the large, flat, and thick surfaces of its carapace scutes. The scutes are fairly smooth and look somewhat like the old time paving
stones that were used for streets. They are thick, large, and dense for their size and may also have faint sulci.

Commonality: The side-necked and the soft-shelled turtles inhabited fresh to brackish waters and are consequently rare in the
deeper water deposits of the Navesink but are slightly more common in the shallower water of the Mt. Laurel.

Similar fossils: Trionyx scutes can be confused with the scutes of the gavil-like "crocodile". The divots of Trionyx are
shallower than "crocodile" scutes and are more circular.
Trionyx scutes are also similar to Peritresius, but Trionyx lacks sulci
and the deep patterned divots in their scutes.

Size: The soft-shelled turtle could reach about 1.5 meters (about 5 feet) in shell diameter.  Presumably, the side-necked turtle
could reach larger sizes.

Notes: Both the side-necked and the soft-shelled turtles inhabited fresh water but may have venured into brackish waters. As
with the dinosaur material, most of the aquatic turtle material was washed into the sea from rivers during storm events. Both
turtles, as their modern counter parts do today, inhabit lakes and rivers with fish as their main diet. These aquatic turtles were
widespread worldwide during the Late Cretaceous and their decedents are still alive today.
Trionyx sp.
ostal Scute
showing divots on the top side)
Trionyx sp.
Costal Scute
(fused rib on the bottom side)